25 January reveloution

 

 25 January reveloution The 2011 Egyptian Revolution is a peaceful popular revolution that began on Tuesday 25 January 2011 (01-25 2011) corresponding to Safar 21 1432 AH (and January 25 was the day set by several parties from the Egyptian opposition and independents, including the Kefaya and Youth Movement The Muslim Brotherhood and the April 6 Youth Movement, as well as youth groups on the social networking site Facebook, the most famous of which is the “We are all Khaled Said” group, and that day falls on Police Day in Egypt.

25 January reveloution

25 January reveloution
25 January reveloution

This was in protest against the poor living, political and economic conditions, as well as what was considered corruption under the rule of President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak.

The popular Tunisian revolution that toppled Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali had a significant impact on sparking popular anger in Egypt. 

Two years ago, a 17-year-old girl named Asmaa tried to create a campaign on Facebook calling for a demonstration and the removal of the former Egyptian president, but it did not succeed. 

A year and a half ago, the opposition movements started educating the people of the governorates to protest the bad conditions in Egypt, the most prominent of which were the April 6 Youth Movement and the Enough Movement. 

The Egyptians wanted to get rid of the regime and the police’s mistreatment of the people.

This revolution led to the abdication of President Muhammad Hosni Mubarak from power on February 11, 2011, Rabi’ al-Awwal 8, 1432 AH. Supreme Armed Forces Administration of Country Affairs.

 

The names of 25 January reveloution

In Egypt and the Arab world in general, the protests and subsequent changes in government, often called the January 25 Revolution, and the Revolution of Anger, sometimes called [9] the Youth Revolution, the Lotus Revolution or the White Revolution. In some media it was known as the “18-Day Revolution”.

 

The causes of 25 January reveloution

1- Emergency Law

Deployment of paramilitary riot police from the Central Security during the January 25 revolution

The system of government in Egypt is a semi-presidential republic under the Emergency Law (Law No. 162 of 1958) in force since 1967, with the exception of an 18-month break in the early 1980s. Under this law, the police’s authority was expanded, constitutional rights were suspended, and censorship was imposed. 

The law severely restricted any non-governmental political activity, such as organizing demonstrations, and unlicensed political organizations, and officially prohibited any unregistered financial donations. 

Under this law, about 17,000 people were detained, and the number of political prisoners reached a maximum of 30,000. Under the “Emergency Law”, the government has the right to detain any person for an indefinite period for any reason or without a clear reason. 

Also, according to this law, a person cannot defend himself and the government can keep him in prison without trial. The government is working on maintaining the emergency law under the pretext of national security, and the government continues to claim that without the emergency law, opposition groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood can come to power in Egypt. 

Therefore, it does not abandon the parliamentary elections, the confiscation of the property of the main financiers of the Brotherhood, and the arrest of their symbols, and these measures are almost impossible without the emergency law and the prevention of the independence of the judicial system. Pro-democracy advocates in Egypt say this goes against the principles and foundations of democracy, which include the right of citizens to a fair trial and the right to vote for any candidate and/or party they see fit to serve their country.

25 January reveloution
25 January reveloution

2- Police brutality

It is considered one of the main indirect causes of this revolution, as under the emergency law, the Egyptian citizen suffered a lot of injustice and violation of his human rights, which is represented in the method of arrest, imprisonment, killing and others, and among these events, the killing of the young Khaled Muhammad Saeed, who died at the hands of the police in the area Sidi Gaber in Alexandria on June 6, 2010, who beat him to death in front of many eyewitnesses. On June 25, Mohamed ElBaradei, the former director of the International Atomic Energy Agency, led a rally in Alexandria denouncing police abuses and then visited Khaled Said’s family to offer condolences.

Then a young man in his thirties, alsaied Bilal, died while he was detained at the State Security Investigations in Alexandria, and there were reports of severe torture, and a video spread widely showing traces of torture on his head, stomach and hands.

 

He stated that many policemen were caught using violence. One policeman was quoted as telling a protester that he had only three months of service left, and then “I will be on the other side of the checkpoint.” The total victims of violence and bullying of the Egyptian Ministry of Police reached 350 (martyrs).

3- Hosni Mubarak’s presidency

Egyptian President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak has ruled Egypt since 1981 AD. His government has been criticized by the media and local NGOs. With his support for Israel, he gained support from the West, and thus continued huge annual aid from the United States. His government was notorious for its crackdowns on Islamist militants, and as a result the United States was silent in its initial responses to Hosni Mubarak’s abuses. It was rare for the American press to mention in its headlines the social and political protests taking place in Egypt. Mubarak’s rule had a significant impact on the economic and social deterioration of the Egyptians, in addition to the marked decline in the level of education, high unemployment rates and the spread of crimes in the country.

4- Corruption and poor economic, social and political conditions

A banner containing the protesters’ demands

During his rule, political corruption in Mubarak’s administration of the Ministry of Police increased dramatically, due to the increased influence over the institutional system that is necessary to secure the presidency for a long time. 

This corruption has led to the imprisonment without trial of political figures and youth activists, the existence of hidden, undocumented and illegal detention centers, as well as the rejection of universities, mosques, and newspapers employees on the basis of political leanings. On a personal level, any individual or officer could violate the privacy of any citizen in his area by arresting him unconditionally because of the emergency law.

Transparency International is an international organization that monitors all types of corruption, including political corruption. In its report in the Corruption Index in 2010, Egypt was evaluated with 3.1 based on perceptions of the degree of corruption from businessmen and state analysts, where 10 means very clean and 0 means highly corrupt. Egypt ranks 98 out of 178 countries included in the report.

By late 2010, about 40% of the Egyptian population lives below the poverty line, meaning that they depend on a national income of about $2 per day for each individual, and a large part of the population depends on subsidized goods.

5- Increasing the population and increasing the rates of poverty

Egypt is the second largest country in Africa by population after Nigeria, and it is the largest country in the Middle East. According to 2007 estimates, the population of Egypt reached about 78,733,641 people (there are other estimates that say that the population of Egypt reached 81,713,517 in July 2008). 

As there is a statistic about an increase in the population that says that Egypt increases a child every “23 seconds”, which means that Egypt increases about 1.5 million people per year, which poses a great danger to the limited resources in Egypt if there is no conscious government that uses this population wealth

The population of Egypt in 1966 AD was 30,083,419 people, and most of the Egyptians live near the banks of the Nile, in an area of ​​about 40,000 square kilometers (15,000 square miles), because this land is considered the only arable land in Egypt. 

The increase in the population was accompanied by economic deterioration as a result of the failure of the state’s policies to benefit from the increase in the workforce, and the emergence of a new generation of young people, many of whom had university degrees, but they did not have remunerative jobs, led to an increase in the opposition, as the youth were the backbone of the revolution, as well as their knowledge The document is generally used with modern means of communication and their effective use of them in organizing the revolution and keeping it alive during the severing of the Hosni Mubarak regime of communications in the country from the beginning of the revolution. 

More than 40%, are non-existent, i.e. below the poverty line, and accordingly the Egyptian society was divided into two classes, with no middle class between them. 

In which a few control the wealth, seizing the right of the toiling people, and this is what is called monopoly capitalism, in which businessmen and investors try to control and monopolize state bodies and systems, trying to manage the helm of government for their own benefit. They control all state bodies and authorities, whether legislative, executive, or even judicial.

25 January reveloution
25 January reveloution

6- Exporting Egyptian gas to Israel

Since 2004 AD, Egypt has concluded four contracts under which it exports natural gas to Israel – at a price many times lower than the market price – and the work of these contracts extends until 2030. These contracts have caused major political crises for the Egyptian government due to the opposition of oil experts and former ambassadors, as the export begins In the event of a surplus, which is not available in Egypt. These contracts considered these contracts a waste of public money and a compliment to Israel, as well as the corruption and lack of transparency that they are tainted by, which is what called the Administrative Court in Egypt to issue its rulings nullifying the decision of the Minister of Petroleum, Eng. Sameh Fahmy, to assign him directors of public companies to sell gas to Hussein Salem Company (a former officer in the Egyptian intelligence and One of Hosni Mubarak’s close friends and owns many companies and resorts, the most important of which is Naama Bay in South Sinai, where Mubarak gifted a palace there to be the president’s winter resort), which in turn exports it to the Israeli Electricity Company. 

The court demanded the Egyptian government to reconsider the export prices, as Egyptian gas is exported to Israel at 2.5 dollars per meter instead of 10 dollars per square metre, according to its global price, in accordance with the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty between the late President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin. But the government did not respond to this decision, and proceeded to export gas at the prices that were at the time of the agreement more than three decades ago, and this was one of the most important reasons for the people’s resentment against it.

 

7- People’s Assembly elections

The People’s Assembly elections were held two months before the outbreak of the protests, and the ruling National Party obtained 97% of the seats in the Assembly, meaning that the Assembly was devoid of any significant opposition; This disappointed the citizens. Those elections were described as rigged because they contradict the reality in the Egyptian street. In addition to violating the rights of the Egyptian judiciary to supervise the elections, the regime overthrew the judiciary’s rulings regarding the illegality of some electoral districts. The Muslim Brotherhood was legally banned from participating in these elections.

Electoral and nomination process:

– The law gave the Ministry of Interior wide powers that limit the powers of the Supreme Elections Committee, and deprived the latter of its primary role in supervising and managing the electoral process, such as supervising registration in the electoral rolls, announcing election dates, opening the door for candidacy, and defining electoral districts, as well as depriving it of clear mechanisms that enable it to: Implementation of its decisions, and in appointing the staff in charge of managing the electoral process, which led to the dominance of the Ministry of Interior over the management of the electoral process.

The nomination window was opened for only five days, interspersed with two weekends, which prevented the applicants from being able to obtain any required official papers, especially since it was left to each security directorate to determine the required official papers, without coordination or prior announcement.

The application for nomination did not specify the number of documents required, and used a flexible format.

 

5- Social websites on the Internet

The Egyptian citizen Wael Ghoneim and the activist Abdel Rahman Mansour created a page entitled “We are all Khaled Said” on the social site Facebook on the Internet, and Khaled Said was killed in Alexandria on June 6, 2010 AD after being tortured to death by two police informants Sidi Gaber was sworn in, which sparked widespread protests, which in turn represented an important prelude to the outbreak of the revolution. Wael Ghoneim and activist Abdel Rahman Mansour also called through the Facebook page for the Day of Rage demonstrations on January 25, 2011. He had a major role in coordinating with the young men to detonate the revolution on January 25, 2011.

The 25 January reveloution, when it began on January 25, was made up of young people who viewed the “We are all Khaled Said” page on Facebook or the Facebook youth, as Wael Ghoneim said in his interview with Mona El-Shazly on the ten o’clock program, and then it turned into a revolution in which all young people participated, and now It turned into a revolution in which all sects of the Egyptian people participated.

 

Martyrs of 25 January reveloution

A memorial set up by the demonstrators to honor the martyrs of the Egyptian revolution, in Tahrir Square, Cairo. Most of them were killed by the security forces.

Many young people fell during this revolution, some of them at the hands of the police forces and some of them at the hands of some of the sacks of the ruling party. The Minister of Health in the Ministry of Caretaker stated that the number of those who died as a result of the revolution is about 365], while civil sources suggest that the number exceeds 500, especially since there are some dead who have not been identified and there are quite a few missing persons.

The victory of the revolution and the fall of the Hosni Mubarak 

At 6 p.m. on Friday, February 11, 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced in a short statement that the president had relinquished his post, and this was the text:

“In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Most Merciful, citizens, in light of these difficult circumstances that the country is going through, President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak has decided to give up the position of President of the Republic and assigned the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces to run the country’s affairs. God bless and help»

Millions of people flocked to the streets of Cairo, especially in Tahrir Square and various Egyptian governorates, to celebrate his departure, and women chanted ululations. Some people fainted from excessive joy. Within minutes, celebrations spread throughout the cities of the Arab world, from the ocean to the Gulf, rejoicing in the victory of the January 25 revolution and Mubarak’s abdication from power. Garana, the former Minister of Tourism, Muhammad al-Maghrabi, the former Minister of Housing, Ahmed Ezz of senior businessmen, Ahmed Nazif, the former Prime Minister, and others. A decision was issued by the Attorney General to prevent them from traveling until they are investigated in the cases attributed to them.

 

Domestic and international reactions

* The local reaction was that most of the people participated in the revolution, but the government intervened using thugs and hired men and the misleading official media from official newspapers and television channels to create a counter-revolutionary opinion, but in the end these means failed to suppress or eliminate the revolution.

* The international reaction was generally against the regime in favor of the goals of the revolution, and they demanded that President Mubarak transfer power quickly, especially the United States of America, the European Union, Germany and Turkey.

The 25 January reveloution and its disclosure of cohesion and morals of the Egyptian people

* The January 25 revolution revealed the intimate bond between the Egyptian people. Days before the outbreak of the revolution, the country was in a state of tension due to the bombing of the Church of the Saints in Alexandria (which appears to have malicious parties behind it). Then the revolution came to show the cohesion of the Egyptian people and the standing of Muslim youths by their Christian brothers and the two sides helping and protecting each other.

*25 January reveloution showed the great love that the Egyptians had for their country. Throughout the days of the revolution, the slogan was “peaceful.. peaceful” as well as “neither break nor destroy.” In addition, the Egyptians formed popular committees (after the disappearance of the police) to protect the country, especially the Egyptian Museum, who were described as thugs. During the days of the revolution, crime and theft rates decreased.

* During the revolution, the Egyptians presented a wonderful example of the Egyptian people and their high morals, which caught the attention of most world leaders. It suffices to know that when the revolutionaries left Tahrir Square, they cleaned it up and returned it more beautiful than before.

* During 25 January reveloution, the Egyptians’ sense of humor was evident, which almost disappeared during the era of misery during the days of the Hosni Mubarak regime. Tahrir Square was filled with cute banners calling on the regime of Hosni Mubarak to leave. In addition to the Egyptians performing pleasant actions, such as conducting a wedding in Tahrir Square, or for example, performing the (or zaar) in the Sufi way, perhaps it will benefit and make Hosni Mubarak leave, click here to view the zar that was held in Tahrir Square…

 

They said about the January 25 revolution

“We have to raise our children to be like the Egyptian youth.” US President Barack Obama

“We should think seriously about teaching the Egyptian revolution in schools.” British Prime Minister David Cameron

“For the first time, we find people making a revolution and cleaning up the streets after them.” CNN News

“There is nothing new in Egypt, the Egyptians are writing history as usual.” Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi

“Today we are all Egyptians” Norwegian Prime Minister Stoltenberg

“The Egyptians are the most wonderful people on earth and deserve the Nobel Peace Prize.” Austrian President Heinz Fischer

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25 January reveloution

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