Anubis

Anubis is the Greek name for the ancient god of the dead with the head of a pharaonic greyhound in Egyptian mythology, which is pronounced by the hieroglyphic with the correct name “Anbu” (also, Anub, Anubu, B, Einbo, Yenibo, Enbo). Also known as sekhem bit. Prayers for Anubis are found carved in very ancient tombs in Egypt. In Unas’ writing (line 70) he is associated with “Eye of Horus”. Anubis serves as a guide to the late dead and the guardian of the underworld. His worship has gradually passed since the era of the Fifth Dynasty to the god Osiris, whose worship occupied the greatest status in the ancient Egyptian religion. see more gods here https://www.tour-inegypt.com/

god Anubis
god Anubis

his birthday

The deity “Anubis” is the fourth son of the god “Ra”, and in another narration in the late period, it was mentioned that “Nebt Hat” (Neftis) was carried by him from “Osiris”; And for fear of her husband, “Set”, she threw him somewhere in the Delta, but “Iza” found him and he became her guard, and therefore it is said that “Enbu” is (the son of Isis).

his names

He is known in ancient Egyptian texts as (Inpw), meaning: (the royal son). And Budge mentions that the word (inp) means: (to rot), which explains the connection of the deity “Anubis” with corpses and the dead, which rot if not well preserved.

 

Others believe that the word means: (to tie, bind, wrap in a roll), which is the case of the mummy wrapped in linen rolls, which Anubis is guarding. While some interpreted the word as meaning (the prince, the royal child), a metaphor for his affiliation with the sonship of the god “Osiris”. The Egyptian name “Enbo” in Greek was written as “Anubis” after adding the letter (S) to the flags.

 

The deity “Anubis” bore many titles, such as: “Khenti Emintiu”, meaning: (Imam of the Westerners, a reference to the dead buried in tombs in the West, and it is one of the titles of “Osiris” also. sH-nTr), ie: (the head of the pavilion or the divine or sacred tent), referring to the place where the mummification process takes place.

 

He was also known by the nickname “xnty sH-nTr”, meaning: (head of the pavilion or the divine or sacred tent), referring to the place where the mummification process takes place.

 

He was also known by the nickname (tpy Dw.f), meaning: (the one who climbs above his mountain), in reference to the mountainous and desert regions that represent cemeteries, where Anubis is considered the master of the cemetery, as he is the one who protects the dead.

 

He was also known by the nickname “xnty sH-nTr”, meaning: (head of the pavilion or the divine or sacred tent), referring to the place where the mummification process takes place.

 

He was also known by the nickname (tpy Dw.f), meaning: (the one who climbs above his mountain), in reference to the mountainous and desert regions that represent cemeteries, where Anubis is considered the master of the cemetery, as he is the one who protects the dead.

 

He was also known as (Nb tA-sDr), meaning: (Lord of the Holy Land), and it means the cemetery. He was also known as (imy-wt), meaning: (the one in his coils, or: in his tent). He was also known as (Nb tA R-stAw), meaning: (Lord of the “Rustau” cemetery, which is the name of the cemetery “Memphis”, and one of the names of the kingdom of the dead and the other world). He was also known as (iri n xAt), meaning: (the chief of the scales), and (the counter of hearts), due to his role in the scene of the trial and the weight of the heart of the deceased.

 

The titles and names of this deity: “Before the Westerners”, “The Imam of the Dead”. Lord of the ancient necropolis of Abydos. take the dog. Since the end of the Old Kingdom, it became a title for the god “Osiris” after he was merged with him.

 

The jackal is the sacred animal of the lord, Bawaut and Anubis, the god of mummification.

What is Anubis’s power?

A jackal or wolf, and he led the deceased in the other world, and sometimes he was embodied in the form of an animal (jackal), and he was considered a great funerary deity, and he had temples dedicated to his worship in Middle Egypt, in a city called by the Greeks the name (Kino Boas) meaning The city of dogs.

 

Anubis is the god of mummification, he was represented in the form of a man with the head of a black jackal, and he was also considered the god of the dead.

 

Worship of god Anubis

“Anubis” was worshiped in “Al-Qais”, the capital of the seventeenth region of Upper Egypt, which was known as (Enbo), and the Greeks knew him as “Kinopolis”, meaning: (the city of the dog). The city is located southwest of “Bani Mazar” in Minya Governorate, on the eastern bank of Bahr Youssef.

 

Inbo was also worshiped in many other regions, such as “Abydos”, “Al-Hiba” (the eighteenth region of Upper Egypt), “Deir El-Gabrawi” in the twelfth region of Upper Egypt, “Deir El-Bahari”, and in the country of “Nubia” where He was known in the temple of “Abu Simbel” as “The Master of Nubia”. He also had a temple in Assiut.

 

Anubis holding a lunar disk

 

Anubis was depicted in the myth of the divine birth of Pharaoh Hatshepsut and Pharaoh Amenhotep III, and he depicted the idol with the head of a jackal, on the displayed cartonnage, and he came carrying a moon disk; Wishing the deceased a long stay in the afterlife. He wears a golden waistcoat, a short kilt with a long tail hanging from the front, and a pair of sandals. A wide white cloth hangs from the back, touching the feet.

Anubis holding a lunar disk
Anubis holding a lunar disk

(Anubis) god of the dead

 

The Egyptians saw in the jackal the sworn enemy of dead bodies, as he digs up graves and tampers with the corpses, and perhaps that was the reason behind his sanctification as an anguish for the dead and a protector of the cemetery, in order to prevent his evil. 

 

(Anubis) god of the dead
(Anubis) god of the dead

He was given this position of worship and sanctification due to the role he played in the story of “Osiris”, where “Anubis” embalmed him and performed rituals and rituals for him. He acquired the color in his body from the color of the body after embalming.

 

depicting

 

“Anubis” in full human form from the tomb of “Ta and Sirte”, Valley of the Kings, Nineteenth Dynasty

The Egyptians represented him in the form of a dog crouching on a base representing the front of the tomb or in an opposite double position, as well as in the form of a human with the head of a dog jackals. He is considered a protector and guard of the cemetery, and he also took the title of “embalmer” because he embalmed the god “Osiris”, and according to one of the legends, his father is “Osiris” and his mother is “Nepthys”.

 

Its symbol is made of the skin of an animal tied from its four limbs to a wooden stand, its head was cut off and its claws were cut off. This figure is meant to express the peaceful form of this animal.

 

Opinions varied about the interpretation of its symbol. Some saw it as a skin hanging over a pillar of a plant fixed to a base, while others saw it as a bull with black and white dots, freshly slaughtered and hanging on a pillar, and blood dripping from it in a container. Among its most famous symbols is also the fronds of male palm trees, as a sign of cowardice.

 

Anubis tasks

Anubis" played very important roles in the (Court of the Dead)
Anubis” played very important roles in the (Court of the Dead)

court of the dead

 

“Anubis” performs the ritual of weighing the heart “Papyrus of the Book of the Dead”

The deity “Anubis” played very important roles in the (Court of the Dead), as he was considered responsible for weighing the heart of the deceased in the courtroom, as he received the deceased in the “Osiris” hall. He is usually depicted at the bottom of the scale, standing or kneeling.

 

mummification

The god Anubis played a role in the mummification process
The god Anubis played a role in the mummification process

He played a major role in the embalming process, which is considered his most important role, as he performed the process of cleansing the corpse, anointing it and embalming it, then wrapping it in linen wraps. He was linked to the mummification process through his role in the mummification of the god “Osiris” in the legend of “Osiris” (there is a view of the mummification of “Osiris” by “Anubis” on the sarcophagus of Sobek-A, from the Middle Kingdom, currently in the Museum of “Berlin”).

 

It is known from the legend of Osiris that he killed and cut his body into pieces that were scattered in different places in Egypt, and many regions claimed the honor of containing parts of that body. As for Abydos, it had the honor of containing the head of Osiris, and it was believed that the tomb of King Djer, one of the kings of the First Dynasty, was the one in which that head was buried.

god anubis with sennegm
god anubis with sennegm

For the Egyptians, it was the protector of both the mummy and the tomb. He is the first embalmer, who mummified the body of Osiris.

 

Anubis is the black jackal animal who personified the deity who was supposed to protect the cemetery; And on this the idol became the patron of embalming. Anubis was depicted in funerary scenes guiding the deceased to Osiris in the court of justice. The embalmers of the corpses wore masks in the shape of the head of a jackal.

 

“Anubis” was also associated with the ritual (opening the mouth), in the “Pyramid Texts”, where the priest who performs the ritual wears a mask of Anubis. This ritual is performed after the mummification process of the deceased in order to give the deceased the ability to use his mouth and his various limbs normally in the afterlife.

 

Anubis performs the Open-mouthed Papyrus of the Book of the Dead

It was also clearly associated with the funerary offerings (Htp-di-nsw) in individual tombs from the Old Kingdom, which were recorded on false doors, entrance lintels, and funerary stelae.

 

And “Anubis” united with the king in the “Texts of the Pyramids”, where the king was described as (having the body of “Atum”, and the face of “Anubis”); It was also considered (the royal son responsible for the embalming of the deceased king).

 

His connection with other deities

The deity “Anubis” was also associated with many deities. He was associated with the deity “Osiris” in a close relationship as (the lord of the dead), and “Anubis” was the son of Osiris. Anubis also acquired the black color of Osiris, and it was Anubis who mummified Osiris. The two idols appeared together in the (Court of the Dead), and in many texts and scenes.

 

Anubis was also associated with the four sons of Horus, whose names were given to the canopic embalming pots, and each of them was assigned to protect the contents of one of these pots. He was also associated with the god Thoth, who usually accompanies him in the scene of the trial of the dead.

 

It was also associated with the moon, and was depicted in some scenes pushing the moon’s disk in front of it, as in the temples of “Al-Deir Al-Bahari”, “Luxor”, and Mamazi (birthroom) in the temples of “Dandara” and “Edfu”, as a symbol of rebirth and renewal.

 

Anubis has appeared in a relationship with many other deities.

 

The worship of “Anubis” in the Ptolemaic period was transformed into a cosmic cult, and it was merged with the Greek god “Hermes”, the guide of spirits among the Greeks.

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