history of Egypt

History of Egypt

History of Egypt


The eras of the ancient Egyptian civilization can be divided into these eras:


1- The Old Stone Age (Paleolithic)

which are ancient periods in which man lived outside the valley away from the river, hunting for animals, birds and fish, gathering fruits to fill his stomach.

Stone Age Tools And Weapons
Stone Age Tools And Weapons

2 – The Neolithic period, about 5000 BC.

This period is known as the Naqada civilization, which can be divided into three eras.

It started in Upper Egypt and the first era was characterized by the existence of trade links with the Kharga Oasis in the west and with the Red Sea in the east, and reached the first cataract in the south.  In the era of Naqada II, which led to the country’s unity after that in historical times, we find a deepening of the previous trade links, as well as some skirmishes between the south and the north.

During this period, the first indications of frescoes appeared in Kom al-Ahmar, near Edfu (around 3500 BC), and colored pottery appeared with drawings of boats and figures of humans, animals and birds.

In the third period of the Naqada civilization, the united regions appeared, which then led to the existence of two kingdoms, one in the delta and its capital was Bhutto (Tel al-Fara’in near Desouq) and the other in the south, with its capital Nukhb (Al Kab near Edfu).


The Egyptian priest Manithon al-Samanudi (who lived between 323 and 254 BC) beginning with Mina or Narmer in the First Dynasty and ending with the era of Alexander the Great in 332 BC.

The Neolithic period tools
The Neolithic period

The Early Dynastic Era

(between 3000 – 2705 BC) consists of the dynasties 2.1. In this period, the first capital of the country was established in Memphis after the unification of Egypt under the leadership of Hor Aha or (Mina), the fourth king of the first dynasty.
He began using hieroglyphs in commercial transactions and writing official documents, and started using stone in construction instead of mud bricks. The royal tombs were built in Saqqara and Abydos.

It is called the era of the pyramid builders and contains dynasties from 3 to 6, and Memphis was the political capital of the country and Ayunu (Ain Shams) was the main religious center.  The period with a young government with different departments of agriculture, construction, army, money houses and others.

history of egypt
history of egypt

At the end of the Fifth Dynasty, important religious and funerary texts appeared, known conventionally as the text of the pyramids and The burial of r statesmen were in cemeteries known as terraces or in cemeteries carved in the rock.

These cemeteries surrounded the pyramids of kings or in the regions in which these officials worked.

The walls of these tombs were decorated with pictures of worldly life and religious and funerary writings.  One of the most important kings of this era was Djoser (nthr khet) from the era of the Third Dynasty, and he is the owner of the Step Pyramid of Saqqara, which was built for him by the engineer Imhotep.

Snefru of the Fourth Dynasty, the owner of the Maidum pyramid and the red and white Dahshur pyramids (the bent ), Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure, the builders of the Giza pyramids.  Regions.

vasse from the early dynastic period
vasse from the early dynastic period,history of egypt

the first intermediate period

(2155 – 2134 BC) During this period the central authority was dissolved and the links between Egypt, Nubia, Phoenicia and Palestine were lost, and the conflicts of the regional rulers increased, each seeking independence in his region, and political chaos spread and the national economy collapsed.

The period between the families from the seventh to the tenth, which is known as the iHnasian period (relative to the city of ihnassiah in Fayoum), was a period of civil wars and famines, and there were two royal houses, one in Thebes and the other in Ihnasia.  In this era, literature and pictures flourished and it had the hardships of life in Egypt accurately portrayed.

Stela of a Nubian, Nenu .First Intermediate Period ,history of egypt
Stela of a Nubian, Nenu .First Intermediate Period ,history of egypt

The Middle Kingdom (2134 – 1781 BC)

consists of dynasties 11 and 12. At the beginning of this period, the country spoke again under the rule of the Theban House, led by King Mentuhotep Nebhepetre, who built his magnificent funerary group in the area of ​​Deir el-Bahari in Thebes, the capital, and the Gantt.  Thebes, as for the Twelfth Dynasty has moved

Travelling Boat being Rowed Middle Kingdom history of egypt
Travelling Boat being Rowed Middle Kingdom history of egypt

In the capital, to Itit Tawi (near Al-Lasht in Fayoum) and the kings built their pyramids of mud brick or stone in Dahshur, Fayoum and Beni Suef.  Images of the afterlife, and these tombs were no longer confined to the tombs of kings, but benefited from them by monarches and provincial governors who were allowed to dig their tombs in their provinces.  Huge irrigation projects were implemented in the Twelfth Dynasty, especially in the Fayoum region, where water storage tanks were built and canals were dug during the eras of Senusret II, Senusret III and Amenemhat III.


The Second Intermediate Period ( 1781 – 1550 BC)

– It consists of dynasties from 13 to 17. At the end of the Middle Kingdom, many regional conflicts occurred as a result of the weakness of the central government, the country’s political unity disintegrated, its economy collapsed, and its arts withered as it infiltrated the Nile Valley.

Rishi coffin Second Intermediate Period Early New Kingdom history of egypt
Rishi coffin Second Intermediate Period Early New Kingdom history of egypt

A group of Asians infiltrated the Nile Valley known as the Hyksos (or rulers of foreign countries) and it consisted of immigrant tribes of the Syrians, Palestinians and Hurrians, and they introduced to Egypt the horse and the horse-drawn chariot and new types of daggers, swords and double bow, those war tools that developed the fighting methods after that  It played a major role in Egypt’s military history.


And the Hyksos worshiped the god Sett, the lord of power and chaos, and they ruled the country from their capital, Avaris (Tell al-Dabaa) in the eastern delta between San al-Hijr and lead by Seqenen Ra Taa and after him Kams and Ahmose and succeeded in expelling the Hyksos and uniting the country and a new family and a new era appeared.


The era of the new kingdom (or the era of the empire) (1550 – 1070 BC.) It consists of dynasties from 18 to 20 and is considered the golden age of Egyptian civilization, and in the eighteenth dynasty Thebes was the political and religious capital of the country and many temples for the state were built for the main god Amun-Ra, and the Karnak temple was a seat of worship and a major political and economic center, where local taxes and foreign tribute were poured from Nubia, Syria, Palestine, Phoenicia, Punt (Somalia?), Libya, Crete Island, the Aegean Islands and Mesopotamia.


one of the most important kings of the Eighteenth Dynasty


1 – Hatshepsut (1488-1470 BC)


the most famous woman who ruled Egypt as a pharaoh, and her era was an era of relative prosperity and peace, characterized by the existence of commercial relations with Puntland and the construction of huge religious and funerary buildings in Thebes (Al-Deir Al-Bahari and Karnak).

 2- Thutmose III (1490 – 1431 BC)

Thutmose III

The era of this king was characterized by military activities in Palestine and Syria in the north, and his armies reached the fourth waterfall in the south.  Baba.”

3- Amenhotep III (1403 – 1365 BC)

and his era was characterized by peace, prosperity and good diplomatic relations with many foreign countries in the countries of West Asia. Arts and civilization flourished in his time.


4- Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten)

(from 1365 – 1348 BC), the king who proclaimed the oneness of God in Egypt

It was he who carried out a major process of religious reform and was not the official idol of the state, Amun-Ra, with the god Aten, the sun god.

The well-known artistic concepts and political traditions changed, and the king moved the capital from Thebes to a new virgin city in central Egypt, which he called Akhet Aten, meaning the horizon of Aten (currently Tel El-Amarna).

Egypt lost its influence, which was established by Thutmose III in Syria and Palestine.

history of egypt Relief depicting Akhenaten andNefertiti
history of egypt Relief depicting Akhenaten andNefertiti

5- Tutankhamun (1347-1337 BC)

one of Akhenaten’s successors, who restored Egypt to its ancient creed, the belief of Amun-Ra, and abandoned Akhenaten in preparation for a return to ancient traditions. The discovery of this king’s tomb almost intact in 1922 showed us the wealth and prosperity of Egypt in  The era of the Eighteenth Dynasty.

Tutankhamun, history of egypt
Tutankhamun, history of egypt

6- Hor Moheb (1332 – 1305 BC)

who was the leader of the army and became king of Egypt after the death of Tutankhamun and saved the country from falling under the rule of foreigners, and in the era of the 19th Dynasty (1305-1196 BC) part of the  The influence of Egypt in Palestine and the Levant during the reign of Sini I and Ramses II, and the country’s capital was moved to a new city, Barr Ramses in the eastern delta, which is the birthplace of the Ramesses family, and it is the city closest to the eastern borders of Egypt, where it is easy to defend the country against the invaders who usually come  From East .

During this period, the Hittites, the inhabitants of Asia Minor, were Egypt’s main enemies, and the Battle of Kadesh took place between the Kingdom of Egypt and the Kingdom of Khita due to the intensity of the conflict between them for control of the Levant.


In the era of Ramses III (1196 BC) the peoples of the Mediterranean (especially from the islands of the Aegean) threatened the northern borders of Egypt and the Nile Delta, and the situation deteriorated and The economic and central government has weakened and notes the existence of disturbances and an increase in corruption in the country, as well as the wealth and political influence of the priests of Amun.


The Third Intermediate Period (1070-750 BC)

This period consists of the 21-24 dynasties, and in the era of the 21st Dynasty, Egypt was divided into two regions, one in the south run by the priests of Amun-Re in Karnak and the other in the north run by the priests of Tanis, and the kings of the dynasties were from the second  Twenty to twenty-fourth family of Libyan origin.

The Late Period (750-332 BC)

which is the period of the dynasties from 25 to 30, and in the era of the twenty-fifth dynasty, the kings of Nubia succeeded in unifying the country under the rule of Shabaka, and the capital was transferred to Napata, near the fourth waterfall, and at the end of the fourth waterfall.

The conquest of Egypt in the year (671 BC. M.).

As for the Twenty-sixth Al-Sawiyah Dynasty (relative to Sais or Sa’ Al-Hajar in the west of the Delta), it wanted to restore to Egypt its strength and renaissance, and it was resurrected from its ancient artistic traditions until the Persians, led by Cambyses, invaded Egypt in 525 BC.  NS .  In the dynastic era from 27-30, Egypt was under the rule of the Persians, except for a short period during which some Egyptian rulers were able to reach the throne.


The Greco-Roman period (332 BC – 395 AD)

in the year 332 BC.  NS .  Alexander the Great conquered Egypt and established the city of Alexandria, but he died in 323 BC.  NS .  Egypt became under the rule of the Ptolemies until the death of Antonio and Cleopatra VII in 30 BC.

Here, Egypt became a Roman state until 395 AD, Christianity appeared in Egypt and Alexandria became an important Christian religious center.

Serapis And Isis Religious Syncretism In The Greco-Roman World
Serapis And Isis Religious Syncretism In The Greco-Roman World , history of egypt

the Byzantine period


it began in 395 AD during the era of Arcadius, Emperor of the Eastern Roman State. In 640 AD, Amr ibn al-Aas, commander of the armies of Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab, went down to Pelusium (Suez) and defeated the Byzantines at Ain Shams.

He completed the conquest of Egypt in 646 AD by occupying the state of Alexandria and Egypt became an Islamic state

History of Egypt

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