Luxor

Luxor Governorate is an Egyptian governorate located in the southern Upper Egypt region. Its centers and cities are distributed on the banks of the Nile River. Its capital is Luxor, which in the past represented the city of Thebes, the capital of Egypt during several Pharaonic eras. The governorate was established in accordance with Republican Decree No. 378 of 2009 issued on December 9, 2009.

The governorate possesses a rare group of archaeological sites, many of which are still preserved in their condition, the most famous of which are: Luxor Temple, Karnak Temples, Tombs of the Valley of the Kings, Valley of the Queens, funerary temples, the Temple of Esna And others, in addition to the unique artifacts displayed by the Luxor Museum. The capital of the governorate (Thebes) remained the capital of Egypt until the beginning of the Sixth Pharaonic Dynasty, when the capital moved to (Memphis) in the north.

The name of the governorate was inspired by the name of its capital, Luxor, whose names have varied throughout the ages, so the most famous of them was the city of the Hundred Bab, the city of the sun, the city of light. The city of scepter “Waste”, and the Arabs called it “Luxor” due to the large number of palaces “temples”. Luxor attracts a large segment of inbound tourism to Egypt, because of its human heritage that greatly contributed to linking the present with the ancient Egyptian civilization, and it was chosen as the capital of world tourism for the year 2016, and the capital of Arab culture in 2017.

The national day of the governorate was the day of the decision to establish it on 9 September. December and that until May 20, 2015 in which the Council of Ministers agreed to amend the date of the celebration of the National Day of the Governorate to November 4 each year, the day that coincides with the anniversary of the discovery of Tutankhamun’s tomb.

The governorate is located on an area of ​​2959.6 km², between latitudes 36-25 north. And 33-32 eastwards, and administratively divided into Luxor, Bayada Center, Qurna Center, Armant Center, Al Tud Center, Esna Center, New Luxor City, New Taiba City, and it is bordered to the north by Qena governorate and south by Aswan Governorate, to the east by the Red Sea Governorate, and to the west by the New Valley Governorate.

 

The names

The name “Luxor” is the Arabic name given to the city of Luxor, which represents the heart of the present-day newly established governorate, and the name is a plural of the word “palace” in reference to the remains of the city’s temples. In the past, it had several names throughout the ages.

It was called “Wast”, which is the same name as the fourth region of the Upper Egypt regions that it followed, and it was also called “Newt,” meaning Medina, which is the name that the Torah referred to as “No” or “No-Amun.

“That is, the city of Amun, and it was often called“ Abt dualism ”in reference to the two divisions of the city represented by the Luxor and Karnak temples, and it is possible that during the era of the modern state it was called“ Abi ”or“ Abba, ”which is the name of its sacred places, and the definition of the feminine was added to it. Ta, from which came the name “Tappi” or “Tiba” or “Taiba”.

It was also called the “city of a hundred gates”, either because of its temple monuments or because of the gates of its fortified walls. During the Greco-Roman times, the region was called “Diospolis field” or “Diospolis Magna” meaning the great city of Zeus. As for the city of the dead on the western shore, it was called “Wast Amantat”, meaning Western Thebes, and it was also called “Barhathur,” meaning the house of Hathor, relative to the ancient Egyptian goddess.

 

Geography and population

The Nile River runs on its journey through Upper Egypt in three ranges, before it enters Egypt and even Esna, it runs on the scale of the Nubian Khurasan with its ancient, hardened sand rocks, and between Esna and Armant it turns into the Cretaceous, so the two edges in this apartment are made of chalky rocks, and from Armant and Qena to Cairo it prevails Eocene limestone plateau. At Luxor, the western edge is about 400 meters above the level of the floodplain, while the eastern edge is less high and more gradual.

luxor
luxor

The Luxor governorate is located in the southern region of Upper Egypt on both banks of the Nile, with its northward axis, specifically at the beginning of the Qena fold, which is the largest and most dangerous bend towards the river with its three axes consisting of an incomplete open square ribs. The population of the province in 2012 was about 1,300,000. The highest temperatures in summer reach 41 degrees Celsius and the lowest temperature in winter is 8.5 degrees Celsius.

Site

Luxor Governorate is located on an area of ​​2959.6 km², between latitudes 36-25 north and 33-32 east. It is about 670 km away from Cairo and 220 km from Aswan.

the climate

Luxor is dominated by a dry desert climate with little rain, but sometimes rain falls profusely on the hills and mountains in the eastern desert at times of instability in the atmosphere, causing what is known as torrents. The climate varies with the succession of the four seasons, so winter and summer are characterized by stable weather conditions, and unstable weather and strong winds prevail in spring and autumn. Laden with dust.

customs and traditions

Luxor has its customs and traditions that characterize its culturally and ethnically diverse society. For example, in several villages in cases of marriage, the bride before the wedding visits the righteous saints of God to bless her marriage in what is known as “visitors”, and the shrine of Sidi Abu El-Hajjaj Luxor enjoys the largest share of those visits.

In the village of Al-Mataana, it is stipulated that the girl should not be married except to her cousin or her cousin. In the village of Al-Dabbiya, in cases of death, the family of the deceased did not eat anything but lentils for 40 days.

In Qurna and several other villages, there is a type of art called “the handful”, which is a type of song with applause. On holidays, the families of Minors send a “dinner” of meat, vegetables and fruits to all married family daughters, and to the sons’ fiancées as well

luxor
luxor

The languag

In the past, the people of Luxor spoke the ancient Saidi dialect (Luxor or the good dialect), which is one of the dialects of the ancient Coptic language and was the dialect of Coptic literature from the fourth century AD to the tenth century AD, and with the entry of the Arabs into Egypt, it became the only literary language in Upper Egypt, and remained next to it Faiyum in Faiyum and Bahriya in Lower Egypt, and in the ninth century AD it became the official dialect of the Egyptian Church.

luxor
luxor

During the Fatimid era, al-Hakim Bi Amr Allah ordered in the year 997 to abolish speaking the Coptic language altogether, so the Egyptians avoided speaking it, but they used it in the villages and Upper Egypt. With the spread of the Arabic language in Egypt and the use of the people of Luxor, the Coptic Upper Egyptians pronunciations of letters and expressions and the rules of substitution, deletion and introspection have remained influential on the way they pronounce Arabic until now

Archaeological and tourist places in the city

Luxor, or the “City of Civilization,” or the “Open Temple” is one of the most important tourism cities in Egypt at all, as it is as old as history itself. Wherever you go in Luxor you will find a monument speaking of a great civilization, and why not? It is “Thebes”, the capital of the ancient Pharaonic state, and it contains the most important temples and Pharaonic monuments.

The city of Luxor does not attract culture and history buffs only because of its enormous cultural heritage, but at the same time it offers tourists many surprises, most notably cruise trips in Luxor on the Nile River, which divides it into two halves, and enjoying the most beautiful scenic landscapes, as well as flying balloon trips that give you the most beautiful view of the city. 

The city from the top, and of course, we do not forget to ride the stagecoach, the most popular means of transportation in Luxor, and above all, the mild winter climate, which made Luxor an unparalleled international winter.

Karnak Temple

Karnak Temple is a complex of 11 temples, dating back more than 4,500 years; To be the oldest houses of worship known to history, so Karnak Temple is one of the most important archaeological landmarks in Egypt and the most famous in the world.

The Karnak Temple Complex, great hypostyle hall in the Precinct of Amun Re, Luxor, Egypt.http://bem.2be.pl/IS/egypt_380.jpg

The construction of Karnak Temple continued for about 2000 years, on a total area of ​​about 46 acres, to worship the god “Amun-Ra”, his wife “Mut” and their son, the god “Khonsu”. The construction of Karnak Temple began from the inside from the Holy of Holies, then to the outside, where the lobby of the largest columns in the world, which contains 134 columns, then the entrance to the temple, which is the famous road of rams.

One of the most beautiful events in Karnak Temple, which is one of the most important landmarks of Luxor, is the sound and light shows that take place at night, which tell its story in more than one language.

Luxor Temple

is one of the most prominent temples on the eastern mainland, and is located near the Karnak Temple. Its construction dates back to the era of the Middle Kingdom, by order of King “Amenhotep III”; To serve as the home of the god Amun-Ra.

The Luxor Temple is distinguished by its huge facilities, which start with its large gate and the statues of Ramses II sitting on either side of the entrance, and two obelisks, one standing in its place, and the other in the French capital, Paris, since 1836 AD.

luxor temple
luxor temple

Then there is the huge edifice of Ramses II with a width of 65 m, after that we will find the huge corridor, which consists of two rows of great papyrus columns, and many distinctive edifices and rooms.

The Luxor Temple is also famous historically for its so-called “birth room”, which was a major reason for building the Luxor Temple itself, until King Amenhotep confirms his legitimacy to rule by proving his lineage to the god Amun.

Entry ticket prices to Luxor Temple: 20 pounds for Egyptians/ 140 pounds for other nationalities

 Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut

The Temple of Deir el-Bahari or the Temple of Hatshepsut deservedly deserves the title of Jewel of the Luxor Temples, as it is the largest and most important funerary temple in the era of the Pharaonic state. Tourists come from all over the world; To admire the grandeur of its unique architecture.

luxor
luxor

The temple was built under a rocky slope in the Deir el-Bahari area, which is one of the most important archaeological areas in Luxor and located on the west bank of the Nile. The purpose of its construction was; Worship of the god Amun, the sun god. The temple consists of two parts, the outer part is for the living, and the inner part is for the dead.

Deir el-Bahari Temple was designed on 3 levels, with open balconies, and built entirely of limestone, in front of the second floor there are several wonderful statues of Queen Hatshepsut and the god Osiris. The temple is also distinguished by its historical inscriptions spread on its walls, which still retain their colors despite the passage of thousands of years.

Valley of the Kings

The Valley of the Kings always puts tourists at the top of the list of the most important tourist attractions in Luxor and Egypt in general. When you go there, you will understand why thousands of people flock to this historical place every day. The Valley of the Kings in Luxor is a site that includes the most important royal tombs and some important people from the entourage of the ruling families of Pharaonic Egypt.

Valley of the Kings
Valley of the Kings

The Valley of the Kings includes about 64 tombs, the most important of which is the tomb of King Tutankhamun. It is worth noting that the Valley of the Kings is classified as one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites; The pharaonic tombs with frescoes are the most amazing ever. It is said that this burial site was chosen; It is close to the pharaonic temples.

Entry ticket prices to Valley of the Kings: 20 EGP for Egyptians/ 200 EGP for other nationalities

Valley of the Queens in l

The Valley of the Queens is located in the far south of the western mainland. It was built in the same architectural style as the Valley of the Kings, and for the same purpose, which is to bury the women of the royal families, princes, princesses and those close to them from the noble class. It is located near the Valley of the Kings.

The most famous tomb in the Valley of the Queens is the tomb of Queen Nefertari, the beloved wife of Ramses II, a beautiful woman whose husband made the most beautiful tomb for her. All the walls of the tomb are decorated with carvings, and murals of incomparable beauty, representing the queen, receiving guidance and direction from the gods.

Entry ticket prices to the Valley of the Queens: 20 pounds for Egyptians / 100 pounds for other nationalities

Colossi of Memnon 

The two statues of Memnon are considered one of the most famous and great monuments of Luxor. They are located on the road leading to the tombs of the Valley of the Kings. They are what remains of an ancient temple built to commemorate King “Amenhotep III”, one of the kings of the 18th dynasty, which is considered one of the most powerful families that ruled ancient Egypt.

Colossi of Memnon 
Colossi of Memnon

The two statues of Memnon are among the most prominent tourist attractions in Luxor, which tourists are keen to stand at and meditate on the greatness of ancient Egyptian history. They are called “the Colossus of Memnon”, as the height of one statue is about 21.90 m. 

The name “Memnon” was called in the era of the Greeks; As a result of the cracking of one of the statues; The air was passing through those cracks, making a sound like a moan. It was said that it was the moaning of the hero Memnon, who was killed by Achilles during the Trojan Wars.

Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III

The mortuary temple of Amenhotep III is called the “Temple of Millions of Years,” and is located in the Kom El-Hitan area, on the western mainland in Luxor, or the so-called “city of the dead.”

It was built by King Amenhotep III, who is believed to have ruled Egypt for more than 37 years, on a large area of ​​385,000 square meters, but it was greatly damaged by its low location; It was flooded with water, as well as a severe earthquake in 27 BC; Only the two statues of Memnon remain, and many excavations and excavations are taking place on it. To explore the treasures of this huge funerary temple.

Ticket prices for entry to the mortuary temple of Amenhotep III: 20 pounds for Egyptians / 100 pounds for other nationalities

Luxor Museum

You cannot travel to Luxor without passing through the Luxor Museum, which contains more than 376 rare artifacts, and the mummies of the most important kings of Pharaonic Egypt. The museum is located on the Corniche Road, and is one of the most important tourist places in Egypt to learn about pharaonic history.

The Luxor Museum consists of two floors: the first floor contains many very important artifacts, most notably the granite head of the statue of Amenhotep III, the head of the goddess Hathor in the shape of a cow, the statue of the god Amun, and the Karnak painting, while the upper floor contains a hall with many important statues A hall for mummies, a hall for cutting jewelry, utensils, some furniture, and amulets.

Entry ticket prices to Luxor Museum: 20 EGP for Egyptians / 140 EGP for other nationalities

Ramesseum

The Mortuary Temple of Ramsesium is located in the western mainland. It was built by King Ramses II; To confirm his great royal status, and to commemorate his memory.

Ramesseum
Ramesseum

King Ramses II was fond of building temples in Luxor and Nubia, but the most important of them was the Ramesseum Temple; Because it includes huge statues of King Ramses II, pictures, and inscriptions on the walls of the temple, which tell the nature of life during that historical era, the most famous of which are the inscriptions that tell the planning of the famous Battle of Kadesh, and its details that were between King Ramses II and the Hittites, and ended with the victory of King Ramses II .

Entrance tickets to the Ramesseum Temple: 10 EGP for Egyptians/ 80 EGP for other nationalities

Medinet Habu

Medinet Habu is one of the most beautiful archaeological sites in Luxor, built by King Ramses III; To establish funeral rites, and to worship the god Amun. The secret that distinguishes Medinet Habu in Luxor is its unique architectural style similar to the architectural style of the temples in ancient Syria, which the king saw during his wars there.

Medinet Habu
Medinet Habu

Medinet Habu was built on an area of ​​10 acres, and its walls and ceilings still retain their colors despite the date of its establishment dating back to 3200 BC. It contains the most important tourist attractions in Luxor, most notably the Temple of Habu, one of the largest fortified temples of the ancient state, where there are two walls, one internal and the other external, a celebration hall, and the place designated for priests, called the Holy of Holies.

Entry ticket prices to Madinat Habu: 10 EGP for Egyptians/ 80 EGP for other nationalities

Deir al-Madina

The name may be strange to your ears, because this historical place, which has a distinguished location between the Valley of the Kings and Queens, did not take the same fame as these two sites. Pharaonic temples from the ground up.

Deir el-Medina is an integrated residential complex, with pharaonic houses and ornate tombs; It was established for the workers who created and established the Pharaonic city of Luxor, so the discovery of Deir al-Madina led to documenting the lives of workers in the Pharaonic era, who were from the poor classes, and their number reached about 5 thousand people.

Prices of entrance tickets to Deir El-Medina: 10 EGP for Egyptians / 100 EGP for other nationalities

The mortuary temple of Seti I 

is located in the Qurna region of the western mainland, and it is also called the “Great Temple of Abydos.” The aim of establishing this temple was to glorify and worship all the great Egyptian deities within its walls, but Pharaoh Seti I could not complete it, and whoever did this is his son, the king Ramses II, in addition to building his own mortuary temple, which is located close to the mortuary temple of Seti I, which was designed in the form of the letter L, and is characterized by its exceptionally engraved walls, some of which retain their original colors.

Entrance ticket prices to the Mortuary Temple of Seti I: 10 pounds for Egyptians / 60 pounds for other nationalities

Official working hours of the Mortuary Temple of Seti I: 9:30 AM – 5:30 PM

Address of the Mortuary Temple of Seti I: Qurna, Luxor, Egypt

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