The Egyptian Museum

The Egyptian Museum

The Egyptian Museum in Cairo contains the largest collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities, and is rivaled by the British Museum, the Louvre Museum, and the Metropolitan Museum in New York. The Egyptian Museum was built in Tahrir Square in the heart of Cairo in 1902, and the museum exhibition contains 136,000 Pharaonic antiquities, in addition to hundreds of thousands of antiquities in its stores. see more here https://www.tour-inegypt.com/category/the-egyptian-museum/

Egypt National Museum

The Egyptian Museum creation:

The story of the museum’s founding began with the great global interest in Egyptian antiquities after deciphering the Rosetta Stone by the French scientist Jean Francois Champollion. The first nucleus of the museum was a small house at the ancient Azbakia Baraat, where Muhammad Ali ordered the registration of fixed Egyptian antiquities and the transfer of valuable antiquities to the Azbakeya Museum in 1848 AD.

 

The story of the museum’s founding began with the great global interest in Egyptian antiquities after deciphering the Rosetta Stone by the French scientist Jean Francois Champollion. The first nucleus of the museum was a small house at the ancient Azbakeya pond, where Muhammad Ali ordered the registration of fixed Egyptian antiquities and the transfer of valuable antiquities to the Azbakeya Museum in 1848 AD.

 

After the death of Muhammad Ali, the theft of antiquities returned again, and his successors followed the path of donations, and the museum’s holdings dwindled. In 1858 AD, Mariette was appointed as the first commissioner (to occupy the antiquities), i.e. (currently corresponding to the head of the Antiquities Authority). 

He found that there must be an antiquities administration and museum, so he chose the Bulaq area to establish a museum of Egyptian antiquities and transferred to it the antiquities found during his excavations, such as the traces of the tomb of Ahhotep.

The Egyptian Museum
The Egyptian Museum
In 1863 AD, Khedive Ismail approved the project to establish a museum of Egyptian antiquities, but the project was not implemented. Rather, he was satisfied with giving Mariette (Arabkhana) in front of the Intekkhana House in Bulaq to expand his museum. In the year 1878 AD, a severe rise occurred in the Nile flood, which caused the flooding of the Bulaq Museum and the loss of some of its contents.

 

on some of its contents. In 1881 AD, the museum was reopened, and in the same year, Mariette died and was succeeded by Maspero, director of antiquities and the museum. In 1891 AD, when the collections of the Bulaq Museum increased, they were transferred to the Giza Saraya

In 1863 AD, Khedive Ismail approved the project to establish a museum of Egyptian antiquities, but the project was not implemented. Rather, he was satisfied with giving Mariette (Arabkhana) in front of the Intekkhana House in Bulaq to expand his museum. In the year 1878 AD, a severe rise occurred in the Nile flood, which caused the flooding of the Bulaq Museum and the loss of some of its contents.

 

on some of its contents. In 1881 AD, the museum was reopened, and in the same year, Mariette died and was succeeded by Maspero, director of antiquities and the museum. In 1891 AD, when the collections of the Bulaq Museum increased, they were transferred to the Giza Saraya

And when the scientist (De Morgan) came as head of the interest and the museum, he re-arranged these collections in the new museum, which was known as the Giza Museum. From 1897 to 1899, Loret succeeded De Morgan. But Maspero returned again to run the department and the museum from 1899-1914 AD.

In 1902, he transferred the antiquities to the current building of the Museum (in Tahrir Square), which was designed by the French engineer Marcel Dornau, according to the classical style to be compatible with the antiquities. 

He also designed an artificial pond in front of the museum. One of Maspero’s most active assistants in his second period of work was the Egyptian scientist Ahmed Pasha Kamal, who was the first to specialize in ancient Egyptian antiquities and worked for many years in the museum.

 

The first Egyptian director of the museum was (Mahmoud Hamza), and he was appointed in 1950. The museum had a brief guide from the Maspero situation dating back to 1883 AD, but it made a large guide for the new museum, which has been printed and repeated from 1915 until now (but with a number of modifications).

The Egyptian Museum Sections:

The museum consists of two floors, the ground of which is devoted to heavy monuments, which are arranged on the basis of chronological order, while the upper one is devoted to light monuments and complete collections (such as the Tutankhamun collection) or qualitative collections. 

The museum includes a huge number of Egyptian antiquities from prehistoric times until the end of the Pharaonic era, in addition to some Greek and Roman antiquities.

The Egyptian Museum Sections

The antiquities were divided according to their importance or quantity as follows:

The first section: the antiquities of King Tutankhamun, which is the outcome of the discovery of one tomb for one period of time, in which the relics amounted to more than 3,500 artifacts of gold in addition to the mummies.

 

Section Three: The Middle Kingdom.

The fourth section: The modern state, the period of the great empire, the period of Ramses II, Tutankhamun, Merneptah, Akhenaten, and Tuthmosis

 

The fifth section: From the 21st to the 30th dynasty, that is, all the way to the entry of Alexander the Great into Egypt.

 

The sixth section: the papyrus and currency section, in which the papyri were collected.

Seventh Section: The “Scarves” section

 

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