The Fifth Dynasty

The Fifth Dynasty The Westkar Papyrus, also known as “Tales of Wonder from the Court of King Khufu” and “Khufu and the Witches,” is a papyrus composed of twelve columns written during the Hyksos period but may have been originally written during the reign of the Hyksos. Middle Kingdom,

He tells five stories that his children told of the fourth dynasty, Pharaoh Khufu, The final section tells of the birth of the first three kings of the Fifth Dynasty (Userkaf, Sahure and Neverkara Kakai), Some commentators have suggested that poor handwriting and the large numbers of errors in the text indicate that the papyrus was a copy made by a student as part of his studies.

What concerns the Fifth Dynasty is how it tells us about the first three kings of the Fifth Dynasty who, according to the papyrus, were children of the god Ra. The story explains how the god Ra visited Lady Reddit, the wife of the priest of Ra, to give her the seeds of those kings who would rule Egypt. This story must have been originally told to give a good reason for these kings to rule Egypt as they most likely were not of pure royal blood.

King Userkaf

(Userkaf, “his soul is strong”) was the founder of the Fifth Dynasty of ancient Egypt, and may have been the grandson of Gadfir, however, the exact identity of his parents is in doubt. At the time, she was the son of Shepskaf and Khentkus I, who may have been a lady known as Reddit in the story of Khufu and the wizards who blogged the Westkar Papyrus.

It is now generally accepted that he was the father of Sahure and possibly also the father of Neferra Kara, and he was the first pharaoh to build a temple of the sun at Abu Sir, north of Saqqara, and his solar temple included an altar to the sun and Benben. (Severed obelisk). He built his pyramid near the stepped pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara.

The Khentkaus Problem

It was originally believed that Sahure and Narkari were the sons of Khenkaus I, who had a tomb in Giza known as the Fourth Pyramid, where she bore the title “Mother of the Kings of Upper and Lower Egypt” and she was probably the wife of Userkaf. However, none of this has ever been proven. If this theory is correct, then Khentkaus I may be the lady named Reddjedet in the story of Khufu and the witches recorded in the Westcar papyrus.

However, the same title “Mother of the Kings of Upper and Lower Egypt” was found in a pyramid in Abu Sir of a queen of the same name, Khentkaus, which had long been thought to be similar to the King of Giza. Recent excavations revealed that they are two different queens with the same title and that Queen Abu Sir , Now known as Kentkaus II, is the wife of Neferirkare and the mother of his son Raneferef and possibly of Nyuserre, and some Egyptologists do not consider these two kings to be brothers.

Another queen, Khentkaus III, adds to the confusion and is now believed to be Ranverev’s wife. This is what Egyptologists know of the Khentkos problem.

King Sahure

ruled “near Ra” during the Fifth Dynasty (Old Kingdom) in ancient Egypt. It seems he was enjoying a peaceful and prosperous rule. Trade flourished, and the pharaoh opened turquoise mines in the Sinai and diorite quarries in Nubia. Sahure is also credited with establishing the Egyptian Navy. Although it is generally agreed upon that his father was Userkaf, there is disagreement over his mother’s identity and he was succeeded by Neverker who may have been his brother. Sahure built his pyramid in Abu Sir and it is now a pile of rubble, but the funerary temple has many inscriptions now preserved in many museums, and there are many scenes depicting commercial missions abroad, and one of the scenes shows Egyptian ships returning from Byblos in Lebanon loaded with trees Precious cedar, the temple also records the first known expedition to the land of Punt, rich in myrrh, malachite, and electrum. He also built a sun temple, but its location is unknown.

Neferirkare (Kakai)

Neferirkare (“Beautiful is the soul of Ra”) ruled during the Fifth Dynasty (Old Kingdom) in ancient Egypt, and was the first king to make his birth name (Kakai) part of the official title adding a second cartridge, a custom maintained later by the pharaohs, and married From Genetkaus II, the future pharaohs were born with her, Neferfer, and possibly Niuser. Despite his long reign (estimated to be around fifty years) we know very little about him. He built his own solar temple, but it was never found. ”His pyramid complex remained incomplete, and his son Newseer later incorporated the valley temple and the bridge into his pyramid complex. More than three hundred scraps of papyrus were discovered (“ Abu Sir Papyrus ” The documents are among the earliest known examples of hieratic texts, a continuous form of hieroglyphic writing, and the archive details the complex administration of the temple, including rotas for all the duties of the temple, records of monthly inspections and audits, and maintenance records.


Little is known about the life of Shebeskare (“the noble is the spirit of Ra”) of the Fifth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, and Manetho knew him as “Ceciris”, but he had little to say about him, as he might be the brother of Sahure and Neferirkare who assumed the throne as they were not the sons of Neferirkare, Neferefre and Nuiserre are old enough to rule. Several papyri were discovered in his hierarchical mortuary temple recently, similar to those found in the Temple of Nefkerker.


(Raneferef) Nefferr, or Ranferif “Raise his beauty”, was the first son of Neferker and Queen Khentkous the second became pharaoh. The Turin King List cannot confirm the length of Neverfer’s reign, but estimates vary from two to seven.

It is believed that he was originally known as Neferre (“Re beautiful”) but changed his name to Neferefre (“Re is his beauty”), if true, he would be pictured with his father Neferirkare and his mother Queen Khentkaus II on a mass believed to have originated from the mortuary temple of Neferkerker .

He built the Temple of the Sun called Hetep-Ra, which was not found, unfortunately, the king died suddenly, before his pyramid complex and his funerary complex in Abu Sir were completed, until recently the structure was known simply as the unfinished pyramid, but scholars now attribute that Generally speaking to Neferefre


“possesses the authority of Ra” (also known as Nyuserre, Neuserre, or Nyuserra), his predecessor Neferefre may have been his brother making him the second son of Neferkar and Khentkaus II to become Pharaoh, the list of kings of Turin damaged and thus does not confirm the length of his reign. Manetho suggests that he ruled for forty-four years, but most experts consider this excessive. A representation of the Sed Festival found in its solar temple means that it has ruled for at least thirty years.

He built his own pyramid complex in Abu Sir and built two other small pyramids for his wives. He also completed the Hierarchical Complex of Neferraker, the Complex of the Pyramid of Neferre, and the adaptation of the Hierarchy of Nefercer into the Burial Pyramid of Khankhaus II.

Niuserre also rebuilt the Temple of the Sun in Userkaf and built his Temple of the Sun (called “Shesepu-ib-re” – “Delight of Ra”) at Abu Jarab, which was the fifth largest, most complete, and only solar temple to be built entirely of stone. The finely carved reliefs depict the pharaoh during the Heb Sed Festival and emphasize the importance of the sun god Ra to the kings of the Fifth Dynasty.


is little known about him .


 recorded two expeditions to Sinai, and found his name in the quarries of Aswan, Abydos and Nubia. Grafitti in Nubia refers to an expedition to Punt and appears to have had good diplomatic and business relations with Byblos. During his reign, the importance of sun worship may have become less powerful, so he did not build a sun temple. The nobles gained more importance and power in his era. The pharaoh returned to the traditional cemetery at Saqqara, but continued to preserve the funerary temples at Abu Sir. His pyramid is now nothing more than rubble.

The grandfather was the father (or brother) of Prince Isisian Ankh (who was buried in Saqqara) and the father of Prince Nisirkhor and the princesses Khartanebti, Mert Isisy, Hedjantenbo and Neptimenifries (who were all buried in Abu Sir). It is also possible that he was the father of Prince Raimka and Prince Kaemtgenent (although they may have been children of Minkahur) and Princess Kenthouse (wife of Minister Sangmeep Mehi). He may also have been the father of Unas. Although there is no positive evidence of this family connection, the seamless transfer of power between the two monarchs and repeated references to officials with names including “Isesi” on Unas Bridge are cited as support.

His grandfather recorded two expeditions to the Sinai, and found his name in the quarries of Aswan, Abydos and Nubia. Graffiti in Nubia refers to an expedition to Punt and appears to have established good diplomatic and commercial relations with Byblos. During his reign, the importance of sun worship appears to have waned. The first king of his dynasty did not build a temple to the sun, and he built his tomb at Saqqara instead of Abu Sir. The only image of the king is from the temple of Osiris, the increasing importance of which is evident in the pyramid texts for his successor, Onas. Central government has been reduced and local administration improved. In particular, he reorganized the roles and titles of priests and officials. He is the king named in the Instructions of Ptahhotep (also known as the sayings of Ptahhotep) that listed the ideal traits of a successful official in ancient Egypt, so it is suggested that they were written by his vizier, although Lichthem indicates that they were in fact formed at the end of the Sixth Dynasty. Although the pharaoh returned to the traditional cemetery at Saqqara, he continued to maintain funerary temples at Abu Sir. His pyramid is now nothing more than rubble, but an inscription found inside proves that he was the original owner (the tomb was reused in the Eighteenth Dynasty).


the last king of the Fifth Dynasty in ancient Egypt, was the first pharaoh to incorporate the texts of the pyramids in his pyramid. Onas had at least two wives (Khnut and Nabit, who were buried in Mastaba tombs near his pyramid), but it seems that his son (Ptahshebs) died before him. As a result, there was a short period of political instability after his reign. It is possible that Titi (the first ruler of the Sixth Dynasty) married Abbott, the daughter of Unas, to obtain the throne. There is evidence of construction on Elephantine and Saqqara, and an inscription on a vase showing battle scenes during his reign, but we don’t know much about his life.

Onas chose to build his pyramid near the southwestern corner of the step pyramid of Djoser instead of Abusir with the majority of the kings of the Fifth Dynasty. Inside the pyramid, the oldest known religious text in the world, the Pyramid Texts, was discovered. Although this is the first time that the pyramid texts have been recorded inside a pyramid, there is evidence that the texts have been in use since around 3200 BC. The bridge connecting his mortuary temple and the Valley of the Valley has been illustrated with scenes depicting the arrival of huge granite columns from the quarries in Aswan, the arrival of Asian merchants to Egypt by boat, thriving markets, recreational fishing in the desert, as well as scenes of famine. This famine may have contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom.

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