the great pyramid of giza

the great pyramid of giza

 

the great pyramid of giza, Khufu is the well-known pharaoh of Egypt. And the owner of the Great Pyramid in the Giza Antiquities area, which the Greeks called (Cubes – also Sophis). He is the second king of the Fourth Dynasty from the era of the pyramid builders, and he ruled Egypt around 2600 BC.” He continued to rule the country for about 3 years.

 

  • Sneferu” father of “Khufu”: the father of “Khufu” is the pharaoh “Sneferu”, the owner of the Dahshur pyramid, which is about 30 kilometers from Cairo, and “Sneferu” is the founder of the Fourth Dynasty at the beginning of the era of building the pyramids, and he is the first pharaoh to send a naval fleet to  Phoenicia (present-day Lebanon), to bring cedar wood to be used in the manufacture of boats, furniture and wooden coffins. Remnants of this wood are still inside the pyramid of Sneferu, the father of Khufu.

 

The mother of King “Khufu” “Hetep – heris”: The mother of King “Khufu” is called the Queen “Hetep -heris”, and she is a prominent figure in the history of the Fourth Dynasty and even in the history of Egyptian women.  Sneferu, from whom she gave birth to King Khufu, the owner of the Great Pyramid. 

The mother of King “Khufu” has a unique story in her time, as it is believed that when she died, she died in her own tomb in the Dahshur antiquities area (30 km from Cairo), where her husband was pyramid, but there are hidden reasons that called her son King “Khufu” to transfer  Her body and the contents of her tomb from Dahshur to Giza, to be returned

 

He buried her again in a well about 30 meters deep below the surface of the earth for fear of grave thieves.  

Her tomb was found on the eastern side of the pyramid of Khufu, and the funerary furniture and contents of the tomb were found. It is a group of antiquities, a sign of splendor, the most important of which is a coffin of alabaster, ornaments and pots of gold, a bed, a beautiful jug of gold, and a set of knives of pure gold. 

Likewise, a small box made of alabaster was used to store adornment tools, which are utensils of perfumes and rollers of incense and kohl. However, one of the most wonderful things found was a wooden box inlaid with gold, on which was written in the hieroglyphic script saying: The royal daughter – the royal wife and the royal mother who, if  She asked for something that was done right now.

the great pyramid

Khufu’s Pyramid 

The largest is the wonder remaining from the Seven Wonders of the World. This generation of stones from which this pyramid was built, which number about 3 million blocks of limestone, vary in sizes and weight from half a ton to about 15 tons per block, and the pyramid was built  It covers an area of ​​13 acres, the length of each side is 230 square meters, and the height of the pyramid is 146 meters.

There is a calculation that says that the base of the pyramid of Khufu, if it is dismantled and its stones are taken from it, it is sufficient to build from them (the cathedrals of Florence, Milan and St. Peter in Rome, as well as the cathedrals of St. Paul and Westminster Abbey in  London).

A Drone Captures The Bird's Eye View Of The Giza Pyramid
A Drone Captures The Bird’s Eye View Of The Giza Pyramid

How were the pyramids built

The old state is the period of Egypt’s youth and strength, and the era in which absolute rule” – represented in the person of the pharaoh king – reached its peak.  On the creek of the Giza plateau and on the northern side of the capital “Memphis”, we see the three great pyramids that were built in the Fourth Dynasty (2600 BC).

How were the pyramids built
How were the pyramids built

The first

that its shape and method of construction guaranteed it’s immortality – and the life of “Khalid” for the king who was buried there.  

The second

that the great effort that was made in its construction and the preparation of the materials with which it was built was evidence of the strong determination that serving the Pharaoh King was one of the most important duties and creeds of the people.  Rather, it extended its shadow to the evil of all ages.

 

Cutting stones

At the time when the preliminary work was being carried out at the site of the pyramid, preparations for construction were being arranged in another place.  That is, this road was dragging the stones to the construction site.  

They cut limestone to make the outer cladding of the pyramid from Tura, where it contains the most good types of limestone, in addition to cutting stones from the Mokattam Mountains on the eastern side of the Nile.  Area

 

The workers assigned to this work left us the names of their teams, written in red, from which we find, for example, the names of the strong band – the boat group – the north division, the south division, and one of each pyramid “Khufu” was found, the name (the band of craftsmen).  

From this we see that the cutting of stones had a precise system and teams had names and putting these names on the stones may have been intended to facilitate the process of carrying out the work of each group. 

 At the same time, there were other teams of workers cutting granite blocks needed for pillars in temples, the shoulders of doors, and sometimes the outer cladding blocks, and the sarcophagus in which the pharaoh’s mummy would be placed.  

They were cut from the quarries adjacent to the Giza area, south of the “Sphinx” statue.

 

The machines that were used in cutting the stones

1- The workers used machines made of copper, including saws and chisels, which they used to cut any kind of limestone – and they may have used to facilitate the sawing process with a wet material that helps to break up, such as sand dew, which is abundant in Egypt.  Although we do not have much evidence for this use.

The machines that were used in cutting the stones
The machines that were used in cutting the stones

2 – They used chisels and wedges to cut the limestone. 

The first is used to separate the block from the rock from every side except for the base, and the other (the wedge) is used to lift the block from the bottom up to separate it from the mountain.  

3- The chisels are used to make vertical incisions that go downward, hammered with a hammer of wood, and at the same time make other similar main holes down the sides, and finally (wedges) are placed in a perforation fixed at the base in order to separate them horizontally from the rock and thus workers can separate all the stone blocks from the mountains.  

4 – Holes are made in the stone, and then pieces of wood are placed in them, of the kind that if water is placed on it, it will expand and thus separate the blocks to be cut.

 

Transportation

Transporting stones from their quarries after cutting them was considered hard work. 

Some of the stone blocks used in the construction of the “Khufu” pyramid weighed about 50 tons, and the weights of the blocks of most of the outer covering of the “Khufu” pyramid were 2.5 tons  

The weight of the granite blocks in the burial chamber of the pyramid of King “Khufu” numbered 9 blocks covering the ceiling of the chamber, each weighing about fifty tons (50 tons), and as we know, the granite blocks were transported by ship during the flood season to the place of construction from Aswan.  Wheeled carts, rather they used skis, where the stone block was placed over a cliff using cranes directly above the ground, or a muddy slope made of mud bricks.  

They would drag the ledge over a road with “bars” made of wood, and men and animals would tighten it with ropes fixed to the sledge, and they would pour cold water or perhaps another liquid on the ground to reduce friction and facilitate the process of traction.

 

the method of building the pyramid of “Khufu”

 I would like to prove here that the pyramids of the old state are not a product of its time or an emergent idea in the architecture of the royal tomb 3200 bc) until it reached in its development the building of the step pyramid of King Djoser” in Saqqara, then the curved pyramid in Dahshur built by “Sneferu” and king “Khufu”, then we reached perfection with the royal tomb in its pyramidal form in Giza and in the pyramid of “Khufu” in particular.  The pyramids did not come out, and they are not God’s will, as some claim. 

Rather, they are the product of an architectural engineering development that began more than 500 years before the establishment and construction of the great pyramid (Khufu”)

 

The prevailing opinion in the construction of the pyramids is that they were built from layers.  Or as some call it balconies or steps, and the stones were lifted to their places by machines made of veins of wood.  

higher and thus was being built.  We see from this method that they had many machines with the number of steps of the pyramid, or perhaps they had one machine that moved and moved from one layer to another as the building rose.  

The pyramid was covered with white limestone from top to bottom

 

Down and the only way to lift the huge blocks of stones with heavy weights was to build walkways of mud bricks and mud to rise to the required level.  

And if the late Dr. Salim Hassan, the sheikh ( the chief) of Egyptian archaeologists, and the first Egyptian to work in the area of ​​Al-Ahram antiquities, says: The ancient Egyptians used pulleys and ropes to lift stones, and these are all theories.

the great pyramid
the great pyramid

Why was the pyramid built in this way 

1 – There is a religious theory summarizing that the world was covered with water.  (The eternal ocean), which the ancient Egyptians called (Noun), and what emerged from this sea or ocean was what the ancient Egyptians called the eternal hill, meaning the earth, and the sun’s rays first fell on top of this pyramid-shaped eternal hill.  

Their tombs take the shape of a pyramid, like the eternal hill, as the ancient Egyptian believed that his tomb, or in other words his pyramid, is the whole earth or the whole world.

 

2 – The engineering theory

which talks about the development of the royal cemetery, starting from the first dynasty 3200 BC. 

 until the end of the Old Kingdom (the era of the pyramid builders), which began with what we call the mastaba, and the structure continued to develop until it became a pyramid.

 

3- Another theory says that the pyramid represents the supervision of the pharaoh over his country in immortal life as he was supervising the affairs of his subjects in this life, and this arose from the fact that the pyramid was surrounded by the tombs of the royal family, employees, courtiers, and the governmental administration that consisted of numerous rulers in the regions whose number was getting smaller and smaller.  

Until the matter ends with the individual king who rules all, so we represent him in the form of the pyramid, for which we find a large base whose area in the Great Pyramid is 13 acres, and then gradually reduce this base until the construction ends with one stone at the top and we find all the stones cohesive and tight to each other, as the Egyptian administration in this  age .

 

The myth of slavery

 skunk and building the pyramids: The construction of the Giza pyramids took about (60 years), but the most important of these pyramids is the pyramid of Khufu, which took twenty to twenty-five years to build.  

One year (20-20 years).  More than 100,000 workers participated in its construction, and some claim that “Khufu” was a tyrannical, cruel, merciless ruler who enslaved the people and all the resources to build his pyramid and used with them as they claim the most severe types of torment, but all this claim and claim are baseless and based on a lack of thinking, especially  Who is not familiar with the nature of this ancient Egyptian people

 

Who is the pharaoh since 4500 years ago, the pharaoh “Khufu” at that time, he is from the Egyptians’ point of view the representative of the god on earth or as they called him the king, the god or the holy human being who will rule in the second life that he seeks and wishes as an Egyptian at that time.

 

The ancient Egyptians believed that there is life after death and that the pharaoh will play an important role in the eternal life after death, so all the people were keen to participate in the construction of this pyramid as a kind of blessing, belief and belief in life after death, the life of the resurrection.  

In addition, the flood of the Nile covered the agricultural land for long periods, and it is in the interest of the workers to go to participate in the construction of the residence of their king and take wages, food and money in addition to the religious blessing and their belief in that.

 

We, the peoples of the ancient Middle East, the people of the three monotheistic religions, can love and feel this, and let us give an example of that if we wanted to build a mosque or a church, everyone would contribute with all his strength to help in this building, and everyone would make every effort, regardless of classes and centers, to obtain

This honor is because it contributes to the construction of the House of God, each according to his belief.  We now see in the Egyptian countryside and Upper Egypt how people treat saints and sheikhs and how they give these places all sanctification and respect.

 

Even if there was slavery and forced labor, it could not continue for twenty years, and even if it continued, its work could not reach this architectural perfection as it reached in the great pyramid of Khufu, which has remained so proud that it has now been built as one of the signs of art and architecture, and the people of this valley are a generous, obedient, working people. 

Diligent does not know laziness and does not tend to rest except to an extent, so he built buildings that reach the point of miraculousness and left a heritage that the world is still learning from until now, so we  wonder who talk about Slavery and forced labor that were used in building the Great Pyramid, so were the ancient Egyptians slaves?  This is not true at all, it is just continuous attempts to talk about things that distort the Egyptian civilization.

 

  • Different opinions about the pyramids built

The work in the architecture of the architectural building of antiquities required tremendous and organized efforts, and we can imagine that for the Great Pyramid and all the pyramids of Egypt.  Architecture did not reach perfection as it did in the days of the Great Pyramid, Egypt was at that time the undisputed master of kingdoms, and no people on earth were equal to her people in their civilization, cultural or political authority.  

And Egypt in the days of the Pharaohs was the heart and head of the world, and the Nile of Egypt is the best river in the world, and the land of Egypt is the most fertile of the earth, so how do they talk about other people who contributed to building this civilization and these pyramids, who are they and where did they come from?

 

Once they say a people descended from heaven from the judiciary and built the Great Pyramid, and who then built the other pyramids?!  A baseless slander, then we hear that the Jews or the Children of Israel were the ones who built the pyramids, especially the Great Pyramid. 

This lie was based on the fact that the Great Pyramid was built in 2600 BC and the Jews inhabited part of the eastern delta in 1200 BC – there is a big time difference between their presence in Egypt and the construction of the pyramid up to 1400 years – meaning that the Great Pyramid was built before 1400  A year from the existence of the Jews themselves – Where are the pyramids of the Jews that were built and here? 

Or even the buildings in which they used stones – a big lie – And I say to them, who built the temples of Karnak and Luxor, the tombs of kings and queens, and the tombs of the great in Luxor?  Who carved the temple of Abu Simbel in Nubia?  History is tired of these people who do not tire of talking about the pyramids without not knowing that the king is for God and is inherited by whomever of his servants he wills. 

God has blessed the Egyptians with this civilization, which some try to offend. Good intention is one thing, and good judgment is another. 

One may claim good faith, but he miscalculates, as they say about the pyramids what is not true, and about history what is not.  Science

 

Myths about the Great Pyramid

 It is not the problem of building the Great Pyramid that preoccupies the minds of scientists, archaeologists, clerics, men of architecture, engineering and astronomy, but there are myths and powers that are attributed to the Great Pyramid.  

On the human being, in the sense that if a man or a woman, each of them fifty years old, enters the pyramid and remains for an hour or two inside the pyramid, he will come out after that, and each of them is only twenty years old, and they will return to youth and freshness, and it turns out that this is not true at all.

Myths about the Great Pyramid
Myths about the Great Pyramid

However, the continuous attempts by some who claim that the psalms of our master David are buried under the Great Pyramid, and we do not know why the Great Pyramid in particular?!  .  

These are all untrue and baseless Jewish attempts to undermine or question the Egyptian civilization, knowing that the time of the rule of David or other Bani Israel does not agree with the time of building the pyramids, as the time difference is more than 1,400 years before the existence of the Children of Israel, as we have already mentioned.  From this we see that the Great Pyramid and Egyptian civilization are the preoccupation of all scholars of the world, each in his specialization, and that the Great Pyramid of “Khufu” is in everyone’s imagination, mind and studies, until we find that some say that the Great Pyramid is in the center of the world and its gravity is zero.  

The other says that the pyramid is connected to the stars, planets, the sun and the moon, and this is true because the ancient Egyptians excelled in astronomy and mathematics, and no one preceded them in that.  Agricultural, feasts, seasons, celebrations and more, and they were on a continuous basis and at specific times.

 

Attempting to demolish the Great Pyramid

The Great Pyramid’s luck was not only in questioning its construction and those who built it or the stories and myths that are told about it, but also we find in the Pharaonic era itself that the pyramid was stolen from the inside, as well as the stones of the external cladding were made of limestone and used in building tombs  After the “Khufu” era, the pyramid stones were also used in building the walls of Cairo in the following eras, especially the Roman, Christian and Islamic eras.

when stones were transferred from the Great Pyramid area to build houses, churches, mosques and some palaces in the Mamluk era.  However, the most important disaster that would have befallen the Great Pyramid is the idea of ​​Muhammad Ali Pasha to demolish the Great Pyramid and use its stones to build Muhammad’s arches on “Al Qanatir al-Khayriyyah now” and had it not been for his assistants who told him of their failure to demolish the pyramid and that this It will cost exorbitant expenses and hard efforts, and that the easiest way is to cut stones from the Mokattam mountains and transport them via the Nile to build “Al Qanat al-Khairiyya” in order to insist on demolition. 

Divine Providence had mercy on the Great Pyramid, the greatest demolition that man has built for ages so far.

 

Pyramids of Giza
Pyramids of Giza
  • The Great Pyramid from the inside

 The Great Pyramid was opened at different times during the long Egyptian history, and in the Roman era, the entrance was known, and this is evident from (Astrabo)’s description of it and the way in which it is closed.  

At the beginning of the ninth century AD, the Caliph Al-Ma’mun, who was seduced by the amazing stories about gold and jewels hidden inside the pyramid, rose.  He dug an entrance known as (the safe hole) and it cost him a lot of money, but he found nothing but an empty coffin without a lid From the entrance to Al-Mamoun, which is located on the northern side, it leads us to a corridor carved into the rock with a length of about 100 meters that leads to a room that was not fully carved during the days of Khufu himself.  

Then there is a higher passage that leads to what is mistakenly called the Queen’s Chamber, because the queens are buried in their own pyramids.. Then there is a great hall, which is considered one of the greatest that the ancient Egyptian architecture built. Its length is 48 meters, and it reached the burial chamber or the room with a coffin. 

 King Khufu, made of green granite from Aswan, and the room in which this coffin is covered with granite blocks was also brought from Aswan, which is about 1,000 km away from Cairo.  There is a fact that everyone should know that there was “mortar” to stick the stone blocks together. “More” was used in the construction of the Great Pyramid 

The thickness of this mortar is more than 5 cm. What is said that the pyramids were built using air pressure is completely incorrect and wrong, because the ancient Egyptian engineers used mortar in all their buildings throughout the ages.

from inside
from inside

 

the pyramid complex: 

The pyramid was associated with what we call the pyramid complex meaning the pyramid as a burial cemetery. 

On the eastern side of the pyramid there is a temple for funeral rites before the burial, then there is another temple called the Valley Temple next to the agricultural land. The two temples are linked by a road called the ascending road from the Valley Temple next to the agricultural land and the upper temple.  Next to the eastern side.  This road was visited by the Greek historian Herodotus, the father of history, in 450 BC.  NS .  

That is, 2,000 years ago from now, and he said about him that in its architecture, the style of its construction, and its lighting, it is greater than the pyramid itself, and its length was about 500 meters. Unfortunately, this road has completely disappeared, except for a small part above the plateau, and part of this road is located under the current village of Nazlat el-Samman.  pyramid from the net 

 

 

 

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