the pyramids

Egyptian pyramids

Egyptian pyramids

The pyramids are historically important buildings; Thanks to its intricate design, in addition to the hieroglyphic writings and distinctive artifacts found in it,the number of pyramids in Egypt is approximately 138, all built for the same purpose.

He buried the kings of the pharaohs there, as they were all built on the western side of the Nile; Because of its close connection with the world of the dead, the pyramid of Khufu in Giza is the largest of the Egyptian pyramids, and it is considered one of the seven wonders of the world. As for the pyramid of Djoser in Saqqara, it is considered the oldest Egyptian pyramid; It was built in the 27th century BC

the pyramids

the pyramids

How were the pyramids of Egypt built?

This huge pyramid is the largest of all pyramids. It is considered one of the most important engineering achievements of the pharaohs. It was built over twenty years. Rumors differ about who built it; Some historians believe that the pharaoh “Khufu” forced the slaves to build this pyramid in order to immortalize it

while others suggest a theory that improved the image of the pharaoh “Khufu”, as they believe that during the period of the Nile floods in the past, the lands were unsuitable for agriculture, so the pharaoh rose ” Khufu” provided people with clothing and food in return for their work on this pyramid for 3 months a year.

the pyramids

This pyramid was built in a precise geometric manner, where the corners of the pyramid were directed to apply to the main compass points and with a fixed length of the sides of the base (230.4 meters). 138 meters, and 2,300 stone blocks were used in its construction, with an average weight of 2.5 tons per block.


The ancient Egyptians needed a lot of labour; In order to build the pyramids, noting that the period of building the pyramids was not a short period; For example, the Great Pyramid of Khufu was built over a period of 23 years, and it took between 20,000-30000 men to build, and it was believed that slaves were the ones who worked in building the pyramids, but research conducted by Professor Donald Redford.

He is a professor of ancient Mediterranean studies, who mentioned the opposite of what was prevalent regarding those who worked in building the pyramids, as he mentioned that it was the farmers who worked in building the pyramids, and that was in exchange for some incentives, such as providing them with food, housing, and clothes for free, in addition to exempting them from taxes.


Limestone is the basis for building the pyramids, in addition to other materials, such as granite that was used in building interior walls, and basalt that was used in floors. The workers used different tools; In order to be able to break stones, such as pickaxes, granite hammers, and copper chisels, and after crushing, they were transported to the construction sites through boats in the Nile.

knowing that they were pulled and transported to the place of construction by a lubricated pillar, and this was confirmed by one of the sculptures in an ancient cemetery; It depicts a group of men (173 men), pulling stones by a greased beam, and they are lifted to the top by brick stairs, covered with hardening wax.


The way in which the pyramids were built is a secret that many scientists and researchers have tried to reveal, through drawings and murals that were revealed during excavations and excavations in the pyramids, and many researchers believe that this secret appeared in one of the murals that were found In the tomb of Djehutihotep.

It shows a man pouring water in front of the skis on the sand, which shows the trick that the ancient Egyptians used in transporting heavy stones to build the pyramids. 

This painting is considered a key to knowing the method used by the pharaohs to build the pyramids, which was by pouring water on the sand; To make it easier to move the stones on the latch, and drag them.


The most important Egyptian pyramids

The following are the most important pyramids in Egypt:


The Pyramids of Giza: The three pyramids of Giza were built between approximately 2575 and 2465 BC, during the era of the Fourth Dynasty, in the area west of the Nile River in northern Egypt, on a rocky plateau near Giza, and these three pyramids were considered one of the sites of world heritage in 1979 AD from According to UNESCO (the United Nations Organization for Science, Education, and Culture)

the pyramid of Khufu is the oldest of these three pyramids, and it was named after the second ruler of the Fourth Dynasty (Khufu), which is also called the Great Pyramid; Its original height is 147 meters, and the length of all its facades from the base is approximately 230 meters on average.


The middle pyramid was built from the pyramids of Giza for King Khafre; The fourth king of the Fourth Dynasty, and was named after him, as its length is 216 m from the base, and its original height is 143 m. 

With regard to the third pyramid, it is the southern pyramid that was built for Menkaure; The fifth king of the Fourth Dynasty, with an original height of 66 m, and a length of 109 m from its base. It is worth noting that these three pyramids were stolen from the inside and outside, in ancient times and the Middle Ages.


Pyramid of Djoser


The pyramid of Djoser, which is considered one of the oldest memorial buildings in the world, is located in the Saqqara region. It is part of a complex for the burial of King Zoser, king of the Third Dynasty. The tomb of King Zoser was distinguished from the others by the blue bricks that adorn this pyramid and hieroglyphic letters.


It is worth noting that the design of this unique pyramid came by the architect Imhotep, who made it a six-tiered pyramid, with a height of 61 meters, and this pyramid was built in the period between 2630 and 2611 BC


Pyramid of Djoser
Pyramid of Djoser

The Red Pyramid

In the Dahshur region, not far from Saqqara, is the Red Pyramid built for Pharaoh Sneferu (father of King Khufu), which is considered the first real pyramid built in Egypt, and it ranks second in terms of the largest Egyptian pyramids in terms of its base. It is noteworthy that the visitor can access the burial chamber in this pyramid, and see it in full.

The Red Pyramid
The Red Pyramid

Meidum Pyramid

On the edge of the desert is the Meidum pyramid, which was built by order of King Sneferu, and is considered the first attempt of the pharaohs to build the pyramids. The sands of the desert, and the pyramid of Meidum is the first pyramid to appear at the top of the burial chamber in the form of an arch with beautiful and impressive walls

Meidum Pyramid
Meidum Pyramid

Neither aliens nor superpowers built the pyramids

There are many theories that explained the construction of the pyramids, and many scientists and researchers came to explain the construction mechanism,

but at the same time astrologers, pseudoscience promoters and conspiracy theorists came with superstitions; With tales about aliens helping the pharaohs build the pyramids, or the myth that priests in the time of the pharaohs harnessed the unnatural energies in the universe to build the pyramids.


But thanks to modern science, researchers were able to refute all myths and explain the method of building the pyramids in detail in an article published on the scientific website (Live Science) in 2016. This article explained the importance of the Nile waters in transporting stone pieces, and archaeological excavators discovered a lot of papyrus (Special paper was used in the time of the pharaohs) in which he explained the amount of workers and food that were used to build the pyramids.


Scientists confirmed that the ancient Egyptians used sleds that workers could push and pull, and wet sand in front of the sleds to facilitate their movement, and the stones were lifted by levers and the ladder system, meaning that there were no supernatural or unnatural forces that contributed to building the pyramids that were built as a result of strength and cooperation between the Egyptians the ancients.

Chefren & Cheope, Giza
Chefren & Cheope, Giza

Why were the pyramids built?

The main goal of building the pyramids was to place the remains of the pharaoh in them, that is, as a special type of tomb

and it was used as a storehouse for some manuscripts and papyri in which the Egyptians recorded their knowledge, but the pyramid was used in particular for their belief in life after death and their belief that death on earth is the beginning of the true journey of life Second, they used it to protect the bodies of their pharaohs in order to rise after death to rule the world of the dead again.


What about the tombs of queens and sons?

The importance of the souls of queens, wives, and children of the pharaohs was not ignored; Therefore, many small scattered pyramids or some scattered tombs were built near the three great pyramids in the east or in the western field of the area where the pyramids are located

with the presence of the guards charged with protecting these private royal tombs in which many important wives and dynasties of the pharaohs are buried, from The most important of these cemeteries are: Jonker West Cemetery, Jonker East Cemetery, Steindorff Cemetery.

Pyramids workers slaves of the pharaohs or citizens who received their wages?

There is a lot of controversy about the fact that the workers who built the pyramids were slaves to the pharaohs, but after the discovery of the small tombs around the pyramids

researchers noticed that some of these tombs were dedicated to workers in addition to distinguishing workers from the rest of the citizens, where special and distinct stone pieces were used from the rest of the tomb stones In addition to evidence that pieces of food and drink were buried near them to help them in the second life.

This laid the foundation for the theory that these workers were paid for their work and were not mere helpless slaves.


Astronomical puzzles related to the construction of the pyramids

The astronomical puzzles that are related to the pyramids are one of the most important reasons that caused the great fame of the pyramids. From the beginning, the pyramids were built so that their angles indicate the four directions accurately.

Some scientists have found astronomical messages that determine the distance between the Earth and the sun, as well as the path of the moon’s rotation around the Earth, as well.

The three main pyramids are located in the same order as the three largest stars in the belt of Gemini, and the “Sphinx” was directed to be facing the sign of Leo during a certain period of the year.


Secret rooms, tunnels and chambers not yet opened

Despite the study of these pyramids for more than two decades and despite all the scientific discoveries in this regard, we have not been able to decipher many of the symbols and puzzles related to these huge buildings, as a robotic snake was developed by scientists at the British University of Leeds to photograph the rooms that did not reach Human talk to her after.


They found many secret chambers, dark tunnels and unexplored hieroglyphic writings, and a small hole was discovered at the top of the pyramid of the pharaoh “Menkaure”, the purpose of which was only recently known, as it was found that it allows sunlight to enter the pyramid one day a year, which happens to be his birthday. Pharaoh “Menkaure”!.


Strange facts about the pyramids

As we mentioned, the pyramids are one of the controversial buildings, especially in matters related to how they were built. Here is a quick information about the pyramids:


The height of the Great Pyramid multiplied by a billion is precisely the distance between the Earth and the Sun.

The Pyramids of Giza are the sole survivor of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

The Great Pyramid of Giza remained the largest man-made structure for 3,871 years.

The number of workers who participated in the construction of the pyramids ranged between 20,000 and 100,000 workers.

The Kurdish ruler “Al-Aziz Othman bin Yusuf” tried to destroy one of the pyramids, but he failed to do so.

Incorrect information about the pyramids

In addition to the confirmed information, there are many rumors and riddles about the pyramids that have not been issued by the scientific community confirming their validity and cannot be believed without scientific evidence. So far, they are just rumors and nothing more. Examples of them are:


The pyramids restore the purity of contaminated water when placed inside for several days.

The meat does not rot inside the pyramids.

Pyramids help wounds heal faster.

When a plant is placed for several days inside any of these pyramids and later removed from it, this plant grows more quickly than its counterparts.

Putting cigarettes inside the pyramid for several days loses nicotine.


In Egypt there are more than 100 pyramids

Egypt has a large number of discovered pyramids, numbering 112, but most of them were not completed, and these pyramids are considered of little importance compared to the three pyramids of Giza, the pyramids of Egypt are distributed in many areas, so here is a group of secondary pyramids that we do not have information Enough about them, but it is certainly important to know the name of these pyramids and who built them.


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